Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) can cause venereal disease in cattle and is one of the factors in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Bovine respiratory disease costs the US cattle industry approximately 3 billion dollars annually. A subunit vaccine would circumvent the immunosuppressive properties of whole virus vaccines and add the potential for differentiating vaccinated from infected animals. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein IV (gD) serves as a good vaccine candidate because of its role in early virus infection.
VIDO-InterVac has developed a subunit recombinant chimeric vaccine using antigens from Streptococcus uberis, S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae. This vaccine has demonstrated immunogenicity and efficacy in vivo.
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle and bison species. The disease in cattle includes chronic bronchopneumonia and polyarthritis the latter resulting in lameness. We have demonstrated that M. bovis is a secondary infection in feedlot cattle and is only observed after an infection with BHV-1. A similar disease is observed in bison, however it is seen in older (>2 yr) animals and it appears that is the result of a primary infection with M. bovis.
One of the challenges with vaccine development is the proper formulation to target the appropriate immune response. VIDO-InterVac and partners, under the Bill and Melinda Gates Grand Challenges in Global Health, has developed a novel adjuvant. The adjuvant consists of three components which function collectively to increase the immune responses to multiple antigens. It is in commercial development for humans and is scheduled to enter clinical trials in 2015.
Pathogenic Salmonella strains are a prominent cause of human food-borne infections throughout the world. While several types of infections can occur, gastroenteritis is the most common. Despite decades of research, no Salmonella genes important for human transmission have been identified. In addition, it is still not well understood how Salmonella survives outside the host, although this is assumed to be essential for infecting new hosts. We are making advances towards technologies that reduce transmission and prevent infections.
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