Adenovirus vectors for vaccine delivery

electron micrograph of bovine adenovirus-3

Project Team: Suresh Tikoo, Shermila Kulanayake, Vinoth Manoharan, Tekele Woldemariam

Adenoviruses have proven to be highly effective viral vectors that offer a wide range of advantages. For example, they induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, they are highly cost effective, and they can be developed very rapidly, which allows their use for control of emerging diseases. Current research in our lab aims at the use of bovine, porcine and turkey adenoviruses as vector for veterinary vaccines. This includes understanding of the basic mechanisms of viral replication and characterizing the role of bovine adenovirus-3 (BAdV-3) structural and non- structural proteins in virus-cell interaction leading to the production of infectious progeny virion, which will help in contributing to the advancement of knowledge on fundamental biology of not only bovine adenovirus -3 but adenoviruses in general. Moreover, the research findings of the proposed study will help in developing and evaluating improved bovine adenovirus-3 based vaccine delivery vehicle(s) for vaccination of animals and humans. 

Similarly, porcine adenovirus offer a great potential to deliver foreign antigens and biotherapeutics to pigs. For example, we are currently developing porcine adenoviral vector that can deliver a biotherapeutic protein (fusion protein of porcine IRF7 and IRF3) to enhance the induction of innate immune response to infections with the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV is globally the most significant disease of pigs, for which only moderately effective vaccines are available. Using an adenoviral vector system for the delivery of a biotherapeutic protein will allow us without the use of vaccines to control PRRSV in a safe and cost effective manner. Moreover, by targeting the host rather than the virus, this approach will eliminate the drawbacks associated with developing and using of vaccines for PRRSV.